For the purposes of this Convention:

COFOG is the abbreviation of Classification of the Functions of Government. The full structure and definition of each of the over 100 classes in this classification can be found at the website of the United Nations Statistics Division or at #cofog hashtags ( The COFOG class numbers are used in the construction of #cofogWW #tags such as #cofog0111 for Executive and legislative organs, and #cofog0111AF for Executive and legislative organs in Afghanistan.

Combination (as Knowledge Conversion) is an activity in which explicit knowledge is converted into more complex sets of explicit knowledge, for example in plans, reports, work instructions.

Commons-Markets dependencies Market mechanisms enable socio-economic progress by a progressive division and specialisation of industries, including the knowledge conversions. The progressive division of labour and the combination of its fruits are inherently connected to commons such as institutions and infrastructures that facilitate human interactions (with decreasing costs of transaction and combination). Some more background on the importance of institutional fitness in the knowledge economy is in Institutions for Pro-Growth Conduct in the Knowledge Economy (Jan Goossenaerts, 2007).

Externalised Knowledge is knowledge that has been made explicit in drawings, models, texts, their evaluations, etc. for instance as defined in Nonaka's SECI "Knowledge Conversion" model (

A hashtag is a word or an unspaced phrase prefixed with the number sign ("#"). It is a form of metadata tag. Words in messages on microblogging and social networking services such as Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn, or Instagram may be tagged by putting "#" before them, either as they appear in a sentence, or appended to it. The term "hashtag" can also refer to the hash symbol itself.
Hashtags make it possible to group such messages, since one can search for the hashtag and get the set of messages that contain it. A hashtag is only connected to a specific medium and can therefore not be linked and connected to pictures or messages from different platforms. (Source: Wikipedia: Hashtag)

An Infrastructure Resource is a resource that satisfies the following demand-side criteria : (i) the resource may be consumed nonrivalrously; (ii) demand for the resource is driven primarily by downstream productive activity that requires the resource as an input; and (iii) the resource may be used as an input into a wide range of goods and services, including private goods, public goods, and nonmarket goods.
(Frischmann, 2005, p. 956)

Institutional Fitness for Economic Performance: the determining role of institutions for economic performance have been addressed by D.C. North, see for instance in his Nobel Prize Lecture (1993).

Institutions are the humanly devised constraints that structure human interaction. They are made up of formal constraints (rules, laws, constitutions), informal constraints (norms of behavior, conventions, and self imposed codes of conduct), and their enforcement characteristics. Together they define the incentive structure of societies and specifically economies. Institutions and the technology employed determine the transaction and transformation costs that add up to the costs of production. (Cited from: D.C. North Nobel Prize Lecture (1993)). See also: institutions (

Internalised Knowledge is knowledge that has been acquired by a person, team or group as a basis for their actions in specific socio-technical or other situations, such as facilities, livelihoods, etc. Internalised knowledge is the outcome of the Internalization conversion as described in Nonaka's SECI "Knowledge Conversion" model ( For the person the internalized knowledge includes skills and attitudes.

ISIC is the abbreviation of International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities. The #isicWW tags are defined on the basis of the classes in the 4th revision. The full structure and definition of each of the over 400 classes is at #isicWW hashtags (

Public content means externalised knowledge that is not owned by any private person. They support horizontal methods of knowledge transfer, and they share with basic research outcomes the property that they are an input into and an output from cumulative processes involving multiple inputs, multiple outputs, multiple actors, and multiple research avenues heading in different directions An Economic Theory of Infrastructure and Commons Management (Frischmann, 2005, p. 997).

Knowledge Conversion Nonaka's SECI model defines four modes of knowledge conversion: Socialization, Externalization, Combination and Internalization. Stigiltz' (1999) paper on Scan Globally, Reinvent Locally: Knowledge Infrastructure and the Localization of Knowledge (at Stiglitz on Knowledge) has also used this model. For a very brief summary on the model, see:

Socialization (as a knowledge conversion) is a socio-technical transformational (learning) process during which interacting persons (for instance during their work) or organisations (firms in markets, agencies in society) cumulatively and collectively reshape their behaviour and culture (with a local to global horizon) in reference to externalized knowledge, usually for achieving improved outcomes.

(additional terms may be added during the Convention Drafting)

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